Among the most common diseases of the nervous system are headache disorders, which are characterized by frequent headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches, and cluster headaches are some of the primary headache disorders associated with pain and disability.


  1. Migraine

    Migraine is a primary headache disorder. It is most prevalent among those between 35 and 45 years of age and begins during puberty. Hormonal influences cause it to occur more frequently in women. It is caused by an activation of an inflammatory mechanism deep in the brain, which releases substances that cause pain. There is usually one attack per year, but children tend to have shorter attacks, as well as more abdominal symptoms.

  2. Tension-type headache (TTH)

    A tension-type headache is characterized by mild to moderate pain that's often described as feeling like a tight band around the head. Signs and symptoms of a tension-type headache include; dull, aching head pain, sensation of tightness or pressure across the forehead or on the sides and back of the head, tenderness in the scalp, neck and shoulder muscles.Tension-type headaches are divided into two main categories — episodic and chronic.

  3. Cluster Headache (CH)

    Cluster headaches typically affect one side of the head and the area around the eyes. Symptoms may include a reddened eyes on the affected side of the head and a stuffy nose. In northern countries, they are more common during the fall. They affect around 1 in 1,000 people and are more common in men than women.A cluster headache often appears suddenly, lasts around 1 hour, then disappears. During a cluster period, headaches happen frequently. During remission, there is no pain.

  4. Medication-overuse headache (MOH)

    MOH is caused by chronic and excessive use of medication to treat headache. It is the most common secondary headache disorder which affects up to 5% of some populations, women more than men. MOH occurs by definition on more days than not, is oppressive, persistent and often at its worst on awakening.


For headache disorders to be effectively treated, health care professionals need to be trained, accurate diagnosis to uncover the disease, cost-effective medications, and lifestyle modifications. Headache disorders are commonly treated with analgesics, anti-emetics, specific anti-migraine medications, and prevention medications.

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